When it comes to housing availability in Canada, particularly in its most populated cities, the issue of vacant or underused homes adds to an already frustrating experience. In an effort to address the housing shortage and affordability crisis, the Canadian government introduced the Underused Housing Tax (UHT).

This annual vacant housing tax usually applies to foreign nationals who own residential property in Canada, which the government classifies as “underused.” Below is an informative overview of what this tax is, its goals, how it works, and its potential implications for homeowners and renters.

What is the Underused Housing Tax?

The Underused Housing Tax, commonly known as the UHT, was initiated in response to the increasing number of vacant or occasionally occupied homes in prime locations purchased as investment properties or secondary residences.

Goals of the UHT

The central aim of the UHT is to encourage “affected owners” to either:

  1. Rent out their unoccupied or underused homes, thus increasing the housing supply.
  2. Sell their properties to those who wish to occupy them as primary residences.

Additionally, by imposing this tax, the government collects revenue, which can be redirected into public housing projects or other housing affordability initiatives.

How Does the UHT Work?

While the tax is aimed at foreign residential real estate investors, some Canadians with investment properties and certain Canadian partners, trustees, and corporations may also be affected. On a high level, here’s how the tax works:

  1. Definition of Underused. Typically, if a property is unoccupied for over six months in a year, it falls under this category.
  2. Declaration. Property owners are required to declare the status of their property annually. They must indicate whether it’s a primary residence, a rented property, or vacant.
  3. Calculation. The UHT is then calculated as a percentage of the property’s professionally assessed value. The current rate is 1%. If you are an affected owner, you must file a UHT return even if you do not owe any taxes.
  4. Exemptions. There are specific scenarios where properties can be exempted, such as when a homeowner is temporarily away for work, the home is under construction, or for health reasons.

Pros and Cons of Canada’s Underused Housing Tax

Like most policies, the UHT can provide some benefits, but it also draws criticism. While it remains to be seen if the UHT effectively achieves its goals, here are some of the potential positive impacts it can have:

  • The UHT may address housing shortages by making more homes available.
  • It discourages speculative property buying, focusing instead on genuine homeownership or rentals.
  • The revenue collected is a potential source of funding for housing affordability initiatives.

Critics, on the other hand, feel that:

  • The UHT might not substantially impact the housing crisis, as other factors are also at play.
  • It can be viewed as a penalty for property ownership and possibly discourage investment.
  • Implementing and monitoring the UHT requires resources, potentially making it less cost-effective than other solutions.


The Underused Housing Tax is Canada’s attempt to address housing challenges, aiming to redirect vacant homes towards active use. As with any policy, its long-term effects remain to be seen. The rules regarding who is affected, exemptions, and filing requirements of the UHT are complex. Consult a Canadian tax lawyer or CPA if you think the UHT might apply to you.

Ayush Bhansin

Ayush Bhansin has a degree in General Studies focusing on Interdisciplinary Sciences from Harvard University and has been a versatile contributor and analyst for 12 years. He offers a broad perspective on topics ranging from technology to lifestyle. His previous experience includes roles in market research and as a freelance journalist. He has brought his broad knowledge to various general content, providing insightful analysis and commentary. He is an emerging technology enthusiast and actively participates in various intellectual forums. He is also a classical music aficionado and enjoys exploring different culinary traditions.

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